# Calculator for 4x4 determinants

## Online Calculator for Determinant 4x4

The online calculator calculates the value of the determinant of a 4x4 matrix with the Laplace expansion in a row or column and the gaussian algorithm.

### Determinant 4x4

$\mathrm{det A}=|\begin{array}{cccc}{a}_{11}& {a}_{12}& {a}_{13}& {a}_{14}\\ {a}_{21}& {a}_{22}& {a}_{23}& {a}_{24}\\ {a}_{31}& {a}_{32}& {a}_{33}& {a}_{34}\\ {a}_{41}& {a}_{42}& {a}_{43}& {a}_{44}\end{array}|$

a11=
a12=
a13=
a14=
a21=
a22=
a23=
a24=
a31=
a32=
a33=
a34=
a41=
a42=
a43=
a44=

### Calculating the determinant value with Laplace expansion

You can select the row or column to be used for expansion.

### Calculation with the Gaussian Algorithm

Note: If leading coefficients zero then should be columns or rows are swapped accordingly so that a divison by the leading coefficient is possible. The value of the determinant is correct if, after the transformations the lower triangular matrix is zero, and the elements of the main diagonal are all equal to 1.

## Methods explanation

### Laplace Expansion Theorem

The Laplacian development theorem provides a method for calculating the determinant, in which the determinant is developed after a row or column. The dimension is reduced and can be reduced further step by step up to a scalar.

$\mathrm{det A}=\sum _{i=1}^{n}{-1}^{i+j}\cdot {a}_{ij}\mathrm{det}{A}_{ij}\text{( Expansion on the j-th column )}$

$\mathrm{det A}=\sum _{j=1}^{n}{-1}^{i+j}\cdot {a}_{ij}\mathrm{det}{A}_{ij}\text{( Expansion on the i-th row )}$

where Aij, the sub-matrix of A, which arises when the i-th row and the j-th column are removed.

#### Example of the Laplace expansion according to the first row on a 3x3 Matrix.

$\mathrm{det A}=|\begin{array}{ccc}{a}_{11}& {a}_{12}& {a}_{13}\\ {a}_{21}& {a}_{22}& {a}_{23}\\ {a}_{31}& {a}_{32}& {a}_{33}\end{array}|$

The first element is given by the factor a11 and the sub-determinant consisting of the elements with green background.

$|\begin{array}{ccc}{a}_{11}& {a}_{12}& {a}_{13}\\ {a}_{21}& {a}_{22}& {a}_{23}\\ {a}_{31}& {a}_{32}& {a}_{33}\end{array}|=>{a}_{11}|\begin{array}{cc}{a}_{22}& {a}_{23}\\ {a}_{32}& {a}_{33}\end{array}|$

The second element is given by the factor a12 and the sub-determinant consisting of the elements with green background.

$|\begin{array}{ccc}{a}_{11}& {a}_{12}& {a}_{13}\\ {a}_{21}& {a}_{22}& {a}_{23}\\ {a}_{31}& {a}_{32}& {a}_{33}\end{array}|=>{a}_{12}|\begin{array}{cc}{a}_{21}& {a}_{23}\\ {a}_{31}& {a}_{33}\end{array}|$

The third element is given by the factor a13 and the sub-determinant consisting of the elements with green background.

$|\begin{array}{ccc}{a}_{11}& {a}_{12}& {a}_{13}\\ {a}_{21}& {a}_{22}& {a}_{23}\\ {a}_{31}& {a}_{32}& {a}_{33}\end{array}|=>{a}_{13}|\begin{array}{cc}{a}_{21}& {a}_{22}\\ {a}_{31}& {a}_{32}\end{array}|$

With the three elements the determinant can be written as a sum of 2x2 determinants.

$\mathrm{det A}=|\begin{array}{ccc}{a}_{11}& {a}_{12}& {a}_{13}\\ {a}_{21}& {a}_{22}& {a}_{23}\\ {a}_{31}& {a}_{32}& {a}_{33}\end{array}|={a}_{11}|\begin{array}{cc}{a}_{22}& {a}_{23}\\ {a}_{32}& {a}_{33}\end{array}|-{a}_{12}|\begin{array}{cc}{a}_{21}& {a}_{23}\\ {a}_{31}& {a}_{33}\end{array}|+{a}_{13}|\begin{array}{cc}{a}_{21}& {a}_{22}\\ {a}_{31}& {a}_{32}\end{array}|$

It is important to consider that the sign of the elements alternate in the following manner.

$|\begin{array}{ccc}+& -& +\\ -& +& -\\ +& -& +\end{array}|$

### Gauss Method

With the Gauss method, the determinant is so transformed that the elements of the lower triangle matrix become zero. To do this, you use the row-factor rules and the addition of rows. The addition of rows does not change the value of the determinate. Factors of a row must be considered as multipliers before the determinat. If the determinat is triangular and the main diagonal elements are equal to one, the factor before the determinant corresponds to the value of the determinant itself.

$\mathrm{det A}=|\begin{array}{cccc}{a}_{11}& {a}_{12}& \dots & {a}_{1n}\\ {a}_{j1}& \phantom{\rule{0.3em}{0ex}}{a}_{j2}& \dots & \phantom{\rule{0.3em}{0ex}}{a}_{jn}\\ & ⋮\\ {a}_{n1}& {a}_{n2}& \dots & {a}_{nn}\end{array}|={\lambda }\phantom{\rule{0.3em}{0ex}}|\begin{array}{cccc}1& {a}_{12}& \dots & {a}_{1n}\\ 0& 1& \dots & {a}_{jn}\\ & ⋮\\ 0& 0& \dots & 1\end{array}|={\lambda }\phantom{\rule{0.3em}{0ex}}\mathrm{det A\text{'}}={\lambda }$

## More Calculators

Here is a list of of further useful calculators:

Index Matrix Determinant Determinant 2x2 Determinant 3x3 Determinant 3x3 symbolic Determinant 4x4 Determinant 4x4 symbolic Determinant 5x5 Determinant 5x5 symbolic Determinant NxN